Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracFastCgi


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Timestamp:
Apr 22, 2015, 3:34:51 PM (5 years ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

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  • TracFastCgi

    v2 v3  
    1 = Trac with FastCGI =
    2 
    3 [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. However, unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], i.e. run with different permissions than web server. Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
    4 
    5 '''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP].
    6 
    7 == Simple Apache configuration ==
     1= Trac with FastCGI
     2
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5, Contents, floated)]]
     5
     6[http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] or [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request.  Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
     7
     8Note that unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], ie run with different permissions than the web server runs with. `mod_wsgi` supports the `WSGIDaemonProcess` with user / group parameters to achieve the same effect.
     9
     10'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP]/[trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp ISAPI].
     11
     12== Simple Apache configuration
    813
    914There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and
    1015`mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
    1116
    12 ==== setup with `mod_fastcgi` ====
     17The following sections focus on the FCGI specific setup, see also [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] for configuring the authentication in Apache.
     18
     19Regardless of which cgi module is used, be sure the web server has executable permissions on the cgi-bin folder. While FastCGI will throw specific permissions errors, mod_fcgid will throw an ambiguous error if this has not been done. Connection reset by peer: mod_fcgid: error reading data from FastCGI server.
     20
     21=== Set up with `mod_fastcgi`
     22
    1323`mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file:
    1424{{{
     
    2737calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
    2838
    29 You can set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
     39Add the following to the Apache configuration file (below the `FastCgiIpcDir` line) if you intend to set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
    3040{{{
    3141FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
    3242}}}
    3343
    34 Or you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory like:
     44Alternatively, you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory by adding this:
    3545{{{
    3646FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
    3747}}}
    3848
    39 ==== setup with `mod_fcgid` ====
    40 Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi`
    41 instead of `trac.cgi`. Note that slash at the end - it is important.
     49=== Set up with `mod_fcgid`
     50
     51Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`:
    4252{{{
    4353ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
    4454}}}
    45 
    46 To setup Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use
    47 `FCGIDDefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or
    48 `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try
    49 alternative environment setup below.
    50 
    51 {{{
    52 FCGIDDefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
    53 }}}
    54 
    55 ==== alternative environment setup ====
    56 A better method to specify path to Trac environment it to embed the path
    57 into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of server
    58 environment variables, works for both FastCgi modules
    59 (and for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI as well):
     55Note the slash at the end.
     56
     57To set up Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use `DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try alternative environment setup below.
     58
     59{{{
     60DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
     61}}}
     62
     63=== alternative environment setup
     64
     65A better method to specify path to the Trac environment is to embed the path into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of the server environment variables, works for both [trac:FastCgi] modules as well as for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI:
    6066{{{
    6167import os
    6268os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
    6369}}}
    64 or
     70or:
    6571{{{
    6672import os
     
    6874}}}
    6975
    70 With this method different projects can be supported by using different
    71 `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
     76With this method different projects can be supported by using different `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
    7277
    7378See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
     
    7681}}}
    7782
    78 == Simple Cherokee Configuration ==
     83== Simple Cherokee Configuration
    7984
    8085The configuration on Cherokee's side is quite simple. You will only need to know that you can spawn Trac as an SCGI process.
    8186You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
    82 First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter.
     87First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter:
    8388
    8489{{{
     
    9398
    9499After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source.
    95 The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/chrome/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''/usr/share/trac/htdocs/''
    96 
    97 == Simple Lighttpd Configuration ==
    98 
    99 The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd].
    100 
    101 lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance
    102 environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
    103 
    104 For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
     100The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''$TRAC_LOCAL/htdocs/'' (where $TRAC_LOCAL is a directory defined by the user or the system administrator to place local trac resources).
     101
     102Note:\\
     103If the tracd process fails to start up, and cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package.\\
     104Python-flup is a dependency which provides trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on debian based systems with:
     105{{{
     106sudo apt-get install python-flup
     107}}}
     108
     109== Simple Lighttpd Configuration
     110
     111The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ Lighttpd].
     112
     113Lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance environments. It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
     114
     115For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with Lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
    105116{{{
    106117#var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
     
    119130}}}
    120131
    121 Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above,
    122 and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf`
    123 using `bin-environment` (as in the section above on Apache configuration).
     132Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above, and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf` using `bin-environment`, as in the section above on Apache configuration.
     133
     134Note that Lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example (see [trac:#2418]). This is fixed in Lighttpd 1.5, and under Lighttpd 1.4.23 or later the workaround is to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as a parameter of fastcgi.server.
    124135
    125136For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
     
    145156                )
    146157}}}
    147 Note that field values are different.  If you prefer setting the environment
    148 variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, e.g., to
    149 `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
    150 Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even
    151 if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     158
     159Note that field values are different. If you prefer setting the environment variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, eg to `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
     160Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     161
    152162{{{
    153163#!div class=important
    154164'''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
    155165}}}
     166
    156167For authentication you should enable mod_auth in lighttpd.conf 'server.modules', select auth.backend and auth rules:
    157168{{{
     
    190201               )
    191202
    192 
    193 }}}
    194 Note that lighttpd (I use version 1.4.3) stopped if password file doesn't exist.
    195 
    196 Note that lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
    197 
    198 Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, i.e. serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
     203}}}
     204Note that Lighttpd (v1.4.3) stops if the password file doesn't exist.
     205
     206Note that Lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
     207
     208Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, ie serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
    199209{{{
    200210# Aliasing functionality is needed
    201211server.modules += ("mod_alias")
    202212
    203 # Setup an alias for the static resources
     213# Set up an alias for the static resources
    204214alias.url = ("/trac/chrome/common" => "/usr/share/trac/htdocs")
    205215
     
    220230}
    221231}}}
     232
    222233The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
    223234Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example:
     
    251262}}}
    252263
    253 Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME
     264Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME:
    254265{{{
    255266fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     
    267278For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
    268279
    269 Other important information like [http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/wiki/TracInstall this updated TracInstall page], [wiki:TracCgi#MappingStaticResources and this] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
    270 
    271 If you use trac-0.9, read [http://lists.edgewall.com/archive/trac/2005-November/005311.html about small bug]
    272 
    273 Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
    274 
    275 Note about running lighttpd with reduced permissions:
    276 
    277   If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with lighttpd settings __server.username = "www-data"__, __server.groupname = "www-data"__, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
    278 
    279 
    280 == Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration ==
     280Other important information like the [wiki:TracInstall#MappingStaticResources mapping static resources advices] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
     281]
     282
     283Relaunch Lighttpd and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     284
     285Note about running Lighttpd with reduced permissions: If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with Lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
     286
     287== Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration
    281288
    282289The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
     
    284291!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
    285292
    286 Setup
    287 
    288 1) Please make sure you have first have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with “tracd” first.
    289 
    290 2) Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your trac project will be accessible via:
    291 
     293 1. Please make sure you have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with "tracd" first.
     294
     295 2. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your Trac project will be accessible via:
    292296{{{
    293297http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    294298}}}
    295299
    296 3) Go “TracVhost → External Apps” tab and create a new “External Application”.
    297 
     300 3. Go "!TracVhost → External Apps" tab and create a new "External Application".
    298301{{{
    299302Name: MyTracFCGI       
     
    312315}}}
    313316
    314 4) Optional. If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to “TracVhost → Security” tab and create a new security “Realm”.
     317 4. Optional: If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to "!TracVhost → Security" tab and create a new security Realm.
    315318
    316319{{{
     
    322325If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
    323326
    324 5) Go to “PythonVhost → Contexts” and create a new “FCGI Context”.
     327 5. Go to "!PythonVhost → Contexts" and create a new FCGI Context.
    325328
    326329{{{
     
    330333}}}
    331334
    332 6) Modify /fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini
     335 6. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`
    333336
    334337{{{
     
    339342}}}
    340343
    341 7) Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
     344 7. Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
    342345
    343346{{{
     
    345348}}}
    346349
    347 === Simple Nginx Configuration ===
    348 
    349 1) Nginx configuration snippet - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
    350 {{{
     350== Simple Nginx Configuration
     351
     352Nginx is able to communicate with FastCGI processes, but can not spawn them. So you need to start FastCGI server for Trac separately.
     353
     354 1. Nginx configuration with basic authentication handled by Nginx - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
     355 {{{
    351356    server {
    352357        listen       10.9.8.7:443;
     
    363368        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
    364369
    365         # (Or ``^/some/prefix/(.*)``.
    366         if ($uri ~ ^/(.*)) {
    367              set $path_info /$1;
     370        # it makes sense to serve static resources through Nginx (or ``~ [/some/prefix]/chrome/(.*)``)
     371        location ~ /chrome/(.*) {
     372             alias /home/trac/instance/static/htdocs/$1;
    368373        }
    369374
    370         # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix]/login``
     375        # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix](/login)``
    371376        # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce
    372377        # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate
    373378        # for accessing the whole site.
    374         # (Or ``location /some/prefix``.)
    375         location / {
     379        # (Or ``~ location /some/prefix(/.*)``.)
     380        location ~ (/.*) {
    376381            auth_basic            "trac realm";
    377382            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
     
    387392            # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.)
    388393            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        "";
    389             fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $path_info;
     394            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $1;
    390395
    391396            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
     
    394399            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
    395400            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
    396 
    397             # for authentication to work
     401            fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
     402
     403            # For Nginx authentication to work - do not forget to comment these
     404            # lines if not using Nginx for authentication
    398405            fastcgi_param  AUTH_USER          $remote_user;
    399406            fastcgi_param  REMOTE_USER        $remote_user;
     407
     408            # for ip to work
     409            fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR         $remote_addr;
     410
     411            # For attchments to work
     412            fastcgi_param    CONTENT_TYPE     $content_type;
     413            fastcgi_param    CONTENT_LENGTH   $content_length;
    400414        }
    401415    }
    402416}}}
    403 
    404 2) Modified trac.fcgi:
    405 
    406 {{{
     417 1. Modified trac.fcgi:
     418 {{{
    407419#!/usr/bin/env python
    408420import os
     
    435447
    436448}}}
    437 
    438 3) reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
    439 
    440 {{{
     449 1. reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
     450 {{{#!sh
    441451trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
    442452}}}
    443453
    444454The above assumes that:
    445  * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory.
    446  * /home/trac/instance contains a trac environment
    447  * /home/trac/htpasswd contains authentication information
    448  * /home/trac/run is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
    449   * and if your system is Linux the /home/trac/run has setgid bit set (chmod g+s run)
     455 * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory
     456 * `/home/trac/instance` contains a trac environment
     457 * `/home/trac/htpasswd` contains authentication information
     458 * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
     459  * and if your system is Linux the `/home/trac/run` has setgid bit set (`chmod g+s run`)
    450460  * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
    451461
    452462Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
    453 Thus it is not possible to serve multiple trac instances from one server block.
    454 
    455 If you worry enough about security, run trac instances under separate users.
    456 
    457 Another way to run trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
     463Thus it is not possible to serve multiple Trac instances from one server block.
     464
     465If you worry enough about security, run Trac instances under separate users.
     466
     467Another way to run Trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
    458468
    459469----