Opened 10 years ago

Last modified 4 years ago

#837 reopened defect

Memory leaks in r.example

Reported by: sprice Owned by: grass-dev@…
Priority: normal Milestone: 6.4.6
Component: Default Version: svn-releasebranch64
Keywords: Cc:
CPU: OSX/Intel Platform: MacOSX

Description

In r.example, there are many small memory leaks in basic functions. Not only is it bad to have this many leaks in the example module, the leaks probably persist through many other modules. Here is the location of leaks in a run of r.example, altered only to print "Done!" & pause before exit.

It seems to mostly be a single leak in find_file(), but there is another leak in G_gisinit().

(in text GRASS)

GRASS 6.4.0svn (semisup):~ > r.example --o input=landcover output=landcover.test
r.example(18500) malloc: protecting edges
r.example(18500) malloc: recording malloc stacks to disk using standard recorder
r.example(18500) malloc: enabling scribbling to detect mods to free blocks
r.example(18500) malloc: stack logs being written into /tmp/stack-logs.18500.r.example.TQfsBA.index
Done!
^C
sh(18567) malloc: protecting edges
sh(18567) malloc: recording malloc stacks to disk using standard recorder
sh(18567) malloc: enabling scribbling to detect mods to free blocks
sh(18567) malloc: process 18500 no longer exists, stack logs deleted from /tmp/stack-logs.18500.r.example.TQfsBA.index
sh(18567) malloc: stack logs being written into /tmp/stack-logs.18567.sh.JvnnBY.index
g.gisenv(18568) malloc: protecting edges
g.gisenv(18568) malloc: recording malloc stacks to disk using standard recorder
g.gisenv(18568) malloc: enabling scribbling to detect mods to free blocks
g.gisenv(18568) malloc: stack logs being written into /tmp/stack-logs.18568.g.gisenv.yqOvWQ.index
g.gisenv(18568) malloc: stack logs deleted from /tmp/stack-logs.18568.g.gisenv.yqOvWQ.index
g.gisenv(18570) malloc: protecting edges
g.gisenv(18570) malloc: recording malloc stacks to disk using standard recorder
g.gisenv(18570) malloc: enabling scribbling to detect mods to free blocks
g.gisenv(18570) malloc: stack logs being written into /tmp/stack-logs.18570.g.gisenv.5s2NuI.index
g.gisenv(18570) malloc: stack logs deleted from /tmp/stack-logs.18570.g.gisenv.5s2NuI.index
g.gisenv(18571) malloc: protecting edges
g.gisenv(18571) malloc: recording malloc stacks to disk using standard recorder
g.gisenv(18571) malloc: enabling scribbling to detect mods to free blocks
g.gisenv(18571) malloc: stack logs being written into /tmp/stack-logs.18571.g.gisenv.6FNlZi.index
g.gisenv(18571) malloc: stack logs deleted from /tmp/stack-logs.18571.g.gisenv.6FNlZi.index
sh(18567) malloc: stack logs deleted from /tmp/stack-logs.18567.sh.JvnnBY.index
GRASS 6.4.0svn (semisup):~ > 

(outside of GRASS)

seth:r.example sprice$ leaks r.example
Process 18500: 1701 nodes malloced for 466 KB
Process 18500: 1622 leaks for 25968 total leaked bytes.
Leak: 0x100100040  size=32  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string '/Users/sprice/grass/semisup'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | G__gisinit | G_location_path | G__location_path | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x100100380  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | get_map_row | get_null_value_row | find_file1 | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x1001003c0  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | G_raster_map_type | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x1001003d0  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | G_open_cell_old | G__open_cell_old | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x1001003e0  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | G_open_cell_old | G__open_cell_old | G_raster_map_type | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x1001003f0  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | G_open_cell_old | G__open_cell_old | G_get_gdal_link | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x100100400  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | G_open_cell_old | G__open_cell_old | G_get_gdal_link | G_raster_map_type | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x100100480  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | get_map_row | get_null_value_row | find_file1 | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x100100490  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | get_map_row | get_null_value_row | find_file1 | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x100100510  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | get_map_row | get_null_value_row | find_file1 | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x100100520  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | get_map_row | get_null_value_row | find_file1 | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
[...]
Leak: 0x100106ba0  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | get_map_row | get_null_value_row | find_file1 | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x100106bb0  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | get_map_row | get_null_value_row | find_file1 | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x100106bc0  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | get_map_row | get_null_value_row | find_file1 | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x1001076e0  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | close_new | G_write_range | G_raster_map_type | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
Leak: 0x100107830  size=16  zone: DefaultMallocZone_0x100083000	string 'sprice'
	Call stack: [thread 0x7fff70224be0]: | 0x4 | start | main | close_new | G__write_cats | G_raster_map_is_fp | find_file | G_store | G__malloc | malloc | malloc_zone_malloc 
seth:r.example sprice$ 

Change History (10)

comment:1 Changed 10 years ago by sprice

CPU: UnspecifiedOSX/Intel

comment:2 in reply to:  description Changed 10 years ago by glynn

Resolution: wontfix
Status: newclosed

Replying to sprice:

In r.example, there are many small memory leaks in basic functions.

We don't care about "fixed" memory consumption, i.e. the use of a certain amount of memory for the process overall, or for each library, or for each map. It's only considered a "leak" if the memory usage will grow during normal processing, i.e. consuming memory (unnecessarily) per raster row, or per vector element.

If you try to use the GRASS libraries from a persistent application (one which performs an unlimited number of operations until it is explicitly terminated), you lose. The libraries weren't designed for that purpose, aren't suitable for that purpose, and will probably never be suitable for that purpose. And memory usage is the least of the issues.

Closing as "wontfix". If you have details of any actual leaks, feel free to reopen.

comment:3 Changed 10 years ago by sprice

Resolution: wontfix
Status: closedreopened

Judging by the 1616 leaked nodes in get_map_row() this is on a per row basis. But I've never heard of a well written program containing leaks anyway.

Here's your fix for the first leak: Change line 58 in lib/gis/gisinit.c from "G_location_path();" to "G_free(G_location_path());"

The second leak: Add "G_free(dummy);" at line 1003 in file lib/gis/get_row.c

The third, fourth, & last leaks (in lib/gis/opencell.c) are a bit more difficult to take care of all permutations:

--- grass-6.4.0RC5/lib/gis/opencell.c	2009-03-04 01:06:31.000000000 -0700
+++ grass-6.4.svn_src_snapshot_2009_12_12/lib/gis/opencell.c	2009-12-16 00:04:45.000000000 -0700
@@ -188,21 +188,27 @@
 	    G_warning(_("Unable to open raster map <%s@%s> since it is a reclass "
 			"of raster map <%s@%s> which does not exist"),
 		      name, mapset, r_name, r_mapset);
+        G_free(xmapset);
 	    return -1;
 	}
 	break;
     default:			/* Error reading cellhd/reclass file */
+            G_free(xmapset);
 	return -1;
     }
 
     /* read the cell header */
-    if (G_get_cellhd(r_name, r_mapset, &cellhd) < 0)
-	return -1;
+    if (G_get_cellhd(r_name, r_mapset, &cellhd) < 0){
+        G_free(xmapset);
+        return -1;
+    }
 
     /* now check the type */
     MAP_TYPE = G_raster_map_type(r_name, r_mapset);
-    if (MAP_TYPE < 0)
-	return -1;
+    if (MAP_TYPE < 0){
+        G_free(xmapset);
+        return -1;
+    }
 
     if (MAP_TYPE == CELL_TYPE)
 	/* set the number of bytes for CELL map */
@@ -211,6 +217,7 @@
 	if (CELL_nbytes < 1) {
 	    G_warning(_("Raster map <%s@%s>: format field in header file invalid"),
 		      r_name, r_mapset);
+        G_free(xmapset);
 	    return -1;
 	}
     }
@@ -220,11 +227,13 @@
 		    "Found raster map <%s@%s>, should be <%s>."),
 		  name, mapset, name, G__projection_name(cellhd.proj),
 		  G__projection_name(G__.window.proj));
+        G_free(xmapset);
 	return -1;
     }
     if (cellhd.zone != G__.window.zone) {
 	G_warning(_("Raster map <%s@%s> is in different zone (%d) than current region (%d)"),
 		  name, mapset, cellhd.zone, G__.window.zone);
+        G_free(xmapset);
 	return -1;
     }
 
@@ -232,6 +241,7 @@
     if (MAP_TYPE == CELL_TYPE && (unsigned int) CELL_nbytes > sizeof(CELL)) {
 	G_warning(_("Raster map <%s@%s>: bytes per cell (%d) too large"),
 		  name, mapset, CELL_nbytes);
+        G_free(xmapset);
 	return -1;
     }
 
@@ -261,6 +271,7 @@
 #else
 	G_warning(_("map <%s@%s> is a GDAL link but GRASS is compiled without GDAL support"),
 		  r_name, r_mapset);
+        G_free(xmapset);
 	return -1;
 #endif
     }
@@ -268,8 +279,10 @@
 	/* now actually open file for reading */
 	fd = G_open_old(cell_dir, r_name, r_mapset);
 
-    if (fd < 0)
-	return -1;
+    if (fd < 0){
+        G_free(xmapset);
+        return -1;
+    }
 
     fcb = new_fileinfo(fd);
 
@@ -298,6 +311,7 @@
 	    fcb->name = G_store(name);
     }
     fcb->mapset = G_store(mapset);
+    G_free(xmapset);
 
     /* mark no data row in memory  */
     fcb->cur_row = -1;
@@ -977,9 +991,12 @@
 	return -1;
     }
     G__file_name(path, "fcell", name, xmapset);
-    if (access(path, 0) == 0)
-	return 1;
+    if (access(path, 0) == 0){
+        G_free(xmapset);
+        return 1;
+    }
     G__file_name(path, "g3dcell", name, xmapset);
+    G_free(xmapset);
     if (access(path, 0) == 0)
 	return 1;
     
@@ -1002,7 +1019,8 @@
 {
     char path[GPATH_MAX];
     const char *xmapset;
-
+    RASTER_MAP_TYPE cktype;
+    
     xmapset = G_find_cell2(name, mapset);
     if (!xmapset) {
 	if (mapset && *mapset)
@@ -1013,11 +1031,15 @@
     }
     G__file_name(path, "fcell", name, xmapset);
 
-    if (access(path, 0) == 0)
-	return G__check_fp_type(name, xmapset);
+    if (access(path, 0) == 0) {
+        cktype = G__check_fp_type(name, xmapset);
+        G_free(xmapset);
+        return cktype;
+    }
 
     G__file_name(path, "g3dcell", name, xmapset);
-
+    G_free(xmapset);
+    
     if (access(path, 0) == 0)
 	return DCELL_TYPE;

The next leak in lib/gis/gdal.c:

@@ -135,12 +139,14 @@
     RASTER_MAP_TYPE map_type;
     FILE *fp;
     struct Key_Value *key_val;
-    const char *p;
+    const char *p, *fc;
     DCELL null_val;
 
-    if (!G_find_cell2(name, mapset))
+    if (!(fc = G_find_cell2(name, mapset)))
 	return NULL;
-
+    
+    G_free(fc);
+    
     map_type = G_raster_map_type(name, mapset);
     if (map_type < 0)
 	return NULL;

comment:4 in reply to:  3 ; Changed 10 years ago by glynn

Replying to sprice:

Judging by the 1616 leaked nodes in get_map_row() this is on a per row basis. But I've never heard of a well written program containing leaks anyway.

No program leaks, insofar as all of its memory is returned to the system upon termination. It's just a question of how much memory it uses while it's running. Most programs could have their memory consumption reduced; it's a question of whether it's worth the effort and (more importantly) added complexity.

Here's your fix for the first leak: Change line 58 in lib/gis/gisinit.c from "G_location_path();" to "G_free(G_location_path());"

This is harmless (it's a fixed amount of memory for the lifetime of the process), but it's also trivial to fix.

The second leak: Add "G_free(dummy);" at line 1003 in file lib/gis/get_row.c

This is a real leak, but I'm not sure that it can be fixed this way, as the return value from G_find_* may not be owned by the caller. The return value may be a mapset from the current mapset list, in which case freeing it will break stuff.

Historically, the view has been that memory consumed by G_find_* or G_open_* isn't an issue; it just means that a process consumes a certain amount of memory per map. But the null value handling was hacked on later; the fact that it opens and closes the null value bitmap every few rows was always known to be inefficient, but I don't think anyone spotted the leak before.

Possible solutions:

  1. Change the null bitmap handling to keep the file open.

The reason why this wasn't done originally is that it doubles the number of open files, which can cause e.g. r.series to run into OS limits on the number of open files. It also doubles the number of required fileinfo slots, but this is less of a problem now that the fileinfo array is dynamically sized.

  1. Make G_find_* return unique allocations, so that they can be freed. This may increase fixed memory consumption slightly for some modules, as nothing currently frees the return value. But it will reduce it in the long run (and in the short run for raster modules by fixing this leak), and the worst case with it fixed will still be a lot better than the current worst case.
  1. Make open_null_read free the return value. I think that it will always be unique in this case, as a mapset is always being passed in. AFAICT, the return value is only shared if the name is unqualified and the mapset is NULL or the empty string, indicating that the map should be looked up using the mapset search path. A fully-qualified name or an unqualified name with an explicit mapset should always return a unique value. But if I've overlooked something, freeing the return value will cause no end of problems.

If this was the only issue, my inclination would be for #2, as we're trying to get 6.4 released. In that context, #1 is too disruptive and #3 is a hack which, if it's wrong, may not get discovered until it's too late.

But ...

The third, fourth, & last leaks (in lib/gis/opencell.c) are a bit more difficult to take care of all permutations:

[snip]

This is a large part of the reason why we just resign ourselves to each map requiring a certain amount of memory. And I'd leave it at that, if it wasn't for the null bitmap handling calling this function repeatedly.

This specific fix can't be applied without first making G_find_* always return unique allocations.

The fix would be simpler if G_open_cell_old() called G_fatal_error() on errors. This would make life simpler for modules, which currently need to check the return value. Off the top of my head, I don't know of a single case where the caller actually tries to recover from G_open_cell_old() failing. Doing so would also be a benefit to a small number of modules which forget to check for errors.

An intermediate solution would be to free the memory under normal circumstances and not bother about the leak if G_open_cell_old() fails. It's 99.99% likely that the program is going to terminate immediately in that situation.

The next leak in lib/gis/gdal.c:

This isn't a problem. Each map which is opened requires some memory. There are all sorts of ways in which that memory consumption could be reduced; some of them are worth the effort, some of them aren't. Again, this specific fix can't be applied without first making G_find_* always return unique allocations. If that is done, this would be worthwhile.

Right now, the only thing that I'm certain of is that the null bitmap handling has to change for 7.0, but it's probably too disruptive for 6.x.

comment:5 Changed 10 years ago by sprice

So far my biggest reason to get these fixed is the annoyance of finding the real leaks among the thousands of trivial leaks reported. This hasn't tapped out my 16 GB of RAM.

Looking at the code, I also think that #2 makes the most sense, but I see what you mean about the unique allocation. I'm not sure how 7.0 handles this, if it's fixed it'd be ok to ignore it.

If I could get 7.0 compiled on my machine, I would be willing to write my modules for it; thus find leaks/bugs in it. As far as I can tell, it's not ready for that, though.

comment:6 in reply to:  4 Changed 10 years ago by glynn

Replying to glynn:

The third, fourth, & last leaks (in lib/gis/opencell.c) are a bit more difficult to take care of all permutations:

[snip]

This is a large part of the reason why we just resign ourselves to each map requiring a certain amount of memory. And I'd leave it at that, if it wasn't for the null bitmap handling calling this function repeatedly.

My mistake. The null bitmap code calls G_open_old_misc(). That also leaks memory, but it wouldn't be nearly as much trouble to fix as G_open_cell_old().

That still leaves us with the question of whether to change G_find_*. Returning unique allocations would allow the caller to free the returned mapset string. We could then safely fix the significant leak in the null bitmap handling (which is leaking memory per-row), but would add a fixed increase in memory consumption in the case where unqualified map names are used, at least until we modify everything which calls it (which is around 350 files).

comment:7 in reply to:  4 Changed 10 years ago by glynn

Replying to glynn:

  1. Make open_null_read free the return value. I think that it will always be unique in this case, as a mapset is always being passed in.

Incidentally, this is exactly what it used to do from at least 5.3 (I don't have an older version) until r30300 (Feb 2008). I can't find any indication that this was made in response to a bug report. So in spite of this being a hack, I'm inclined to take this route.

However: that doesn't solve the issue with G_open_old_misc(). That also used to free the returned mapset, in spite of this being unsafe; this was fixed in r29711. In theory, it would be possible to fix that by deducing whether G_find_file2() is returning a unique allocation or a shared pointer, but that's unspeakably ugly.

comment:8 Changed 8 years ago by neteler

Milestone: 6.4.06.4.4

comment:9 Changed 7 years ago by sprice

Hey there, just following up. I noticed that "Change line 58 in lib/gis/gisinit.c from "G_location_path();" to "G_free(G_location_path());"", although trivial, still exists in the GRASS 7 SVN:

http://grass.osgeo.org/programming7/gisinit_8c_source.html#l00041

comment:10 Changed 4 years ago by neteler

Milestone: 6.4.46.4.6
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