GEOS
The geos projection pictures how a geostationary satellite scans the earth at regular scanning angle intervals.
In order to project using the geos projection you can do the following:
proj +proj=geos +h=35785831.0
The required argument h is the viewing point (satellite position) height above the earth.
Other arguments include:
- lon_0: the subsatellite longitude point
- sweep: the sweep angle axis of the viewing instrument. Can be x or y (y is the default). (new in 4.8.0)
The projection coordinate relate to the scanning angle by the following simple relation:
scanning_angle (radians) = projection_coordinate / h
Note on sweep
The viewing instrument on-board geostationary satellites described by this projection have a two-axis gimbal viewing geometry. This means that the different scanning positions are obtained by rotating the gimbal along a N/S axis (or y) and a E/W axis (or x).
In the image above, the outer-gimbal axis, or sweep-angle axis, is the N/S axis (y) while the inner-gimbal axis, or fixed-angle axis, is the E/W axis (x).
This example represents the scanning geometry of the Meteosat series satellite. However, the GOES satellite series use the opposite scanning geometry, with the E/W axis (x) as the sweep-angle axis, and the N/S (y) as the fixed-angle axis.
The sweep argument is used to tell proj.4 which on which axis the outer-gimbal is rotating. The possible values are x or y, y being the default. Thus, the scanning geometry of the Meteosat series satellite should take sweep as x, and GOES should take sweep as y.
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