PROJ(1)                                                                PROJ(1)

       proj - forward cartographic projection filter
       invproj - inverse cartographic projection filter

       proj [ -bceEfiIlmorsStTvVwW [ args ] ] [ +args ]
       invproj  [ -bceEfiIlmorsStTwW [ args ] ] [ +args
       ] file[s]

       Proj and invproj perform respective forward  and
       inverse  transformation  of cartographic data to
       or from cartesian data  with  a  wide  range  of
       selectable projection functions.

       The  following  control parameters can appear in
       any order:

       -b     Special option for binary coordinate data
              input  and  output through standard input
              and standard output.  Data is assumed  to
              be  in  system type double floating point
              words.  This option is to  be  used  when
              proj  is a son process and allows bypass‐
              ing formatting operations.

       -i     Selects  binary  input   only   (see   -b

       -I     alternate  method to specify inverse pro‐
              jection.   Redundant   when   used   with

       -o     Selects   binary   output  only  (see  -b

       -ta    A specifies a character employed  as  the
              first  character to denote a control line
              to be passed through without  processing.
              This  option  applicable  to  ascii input
              only.  (# is the default value).

       -e string
              String is an arbitrary string to be  out‐
              put  if  an error is detected during data
              transformations.  The default  value  is:
              *\t*.   Note  that  if  the  -b, -i or -o
              options  are  employed,   an   error   is
              returned   as  HUGE_VAL  value  for  both
              return values.

       -E     causes the input coordinates to be copied
              to  the output line prior to printing the
              converted values.

              List projection identifiers with -l,  -lp
              or  -lP  (expanded)  that can be selected
              with   +proj.    -l=id   gives   expanded
              description   of   projection  id.   List
              ellipsoid identifiers with -le, that  can
              be  selected  with  +ellps,  -lu  list of
              cartesian  to  meter  conversion  factors
              that  can  be selected with +units or -ld
              list of datums that can be selected  with

       -r     This  options  reverses  the order of the
              expected input from longitude-latitude or
              x-y to latitude-longitude or y-x.

       -s     This  options  reverses  the order of the
              output from x-y or longitude-latitude  to
              y-x or latitude-longitude.

       -S     Causes estimation of meridinal and paral‐
              lel scale factors, area scale factor  and
              angular distortion, and maximum and mini‐
              mum scale factors to be listed between <>
              for each input point.  For conformal pro‐
              jections meridinal  and  parallel  scales
              factors will be equal and angular distor‐
              tion zero.  Equal area  projections  will
              have an area factor of 1.

       -m mult
              The  cartesian  data may be scaled by the
              mult parameter.  When processing data  in
              a  forward  projection mode the cartesian
              output values are multiplied by mult oth‐
              erwise  the  input  cartesian  values are
              divided by mult  before  inverse  projec‐
              tion.   If  the  first  two characters of
              mult are 1/ or  1:  then  the  reciprocal
              value of mult is employed.

       -f format
              Format  is a printf format string to con‐
              trol the form of the output values.   For
              inverse  projections,  the output will be
              in degrees when this option is  employed.
              The  default format is "%.2f" for forward
              projection and DMS for inverse.

              N is the number of significant fractional
              digits to employ for seconds output (when
              the  option  is  not  specified,  -w3  is
              assumed).  When -W is employed the fields
              will be constant width and  with  leading

       -v     causes  a listing of cartographic control
              parameters tested for  and  used  by  the
              program  to  be  printed  prior  to input
              data.  Should not be  used  with  the  -T

       -V     This  option causes an expanded annotated
              listing of  the  characteristics  of  the
              projected point.  -v is implied with this

       -T ulow,uhi,vlow,vhi,res[,umax,vmax]
              This option creates a  set  of  bivariate
              Chebyshev  polynomial  coefficients  that
              approximate  the  selected   cartographic
              projection on stdout.  The values low and
              hi denote the range of  the  input  where
              the  u  or v prefixes apply to respective
              longitude-x or latitude-y depending  upon
              whether  a  forward or inverse projection
              is selected.  Res is  an  integer  number
              specifying  the  power of 10 precision of
              the approximation.  For example, a res of
              -3  specifies  an  approximation  with an
              accuracy better  than  .001.   Umax,  and
              vmax  specify maximum degree of the poly‐
              nomials   (default:   15).    See   also:

       The +args run-line arguments are associated with
       cartographic parameters and  usage  varies  with
       projection  and  for  a complete description see
       Cartographic Projection Procedures for the  UNIX
       Environment—A  User’s Manual ) and supplementary
       documentation for Release 4.

       Additional projection control parameters may  be
       contained  in  two auxilliary control files: the
       first  is   optionally   referenced   with   the
       +init=file:id and the second is always processed
       after the name of the projection has been estab‐
       lished  from either the run-line or the contents
       of  +init  file.   The   environment   parameter
       PROJ_LIB establishes the default directory for a
       file reference without an absolute  path.   This
       is  also  used  for  supporting files like datum
       shift files.

       One or more files (processed in  left  to  right
       order)  specify  the source of data to be trans‐
       formed.  A - will specify the location  of  pro‐
       cessing  standard input.  If no files are speci‐
       fied, the input is assumed  to  be  from  stdin.
       For ASCII input data the two data values must be
       in the first two white  space  separated  fields
       and  when  both  input  and output are ASCII all
       trailing portions of the input line are appended
       to the output line.

       Input  geographic  data (longitude and latitude)
       must be in DMS format and input  cartesian  data
       must  be  in units consistent with the ellipsoid
       major axis or sphere radius units.  Output  geo‐
       graphic  coordinates  will  be in DMS (if the -w
       switch is not employed) and  precise  to  0.001"
       with  trailing, zero-valued minute-second fields

       The following script
             proj +proj=utm  +lon_0=112w  +ellps=clrk66
            -r <<EOF
             45d15’33.1"   111.5W
             45d15.551666667N   -111d30
             +45.25919444444    111d30’000w
       will perform UTM forward projection with a stan‐
       dard  UTM  central  meridian  nearest  longitude
       112°W.   The  geographic  values of this example
       are equivalent and meant as examples of  various
       forms  of  DMS  input.  The x-y output data will
       appear as three lines of:
             460769.27     5011648.45

       The  proj  program  is  limited  to   converting
       between  geographic  and  projection coordinates
       within one datum.

       The cs2cs program operates similarly, but allows
       translation  between any pair of definable coor‐
       dinate  systems,  including  support  for  datum

       The  nad2nad  program  provides  for translation
       between  NAD27  and  NAD83  (also  available  in
       cs2cs) in a convenient manner.

       The geod program provides the ability to compute
       geodetic (Great Circle) computations.

       cs2cs(1U), nad2nad(1U), geod(1U), pj_init(3U),
       Cartographic Projection Procedures for the  UNIX
       Environment—A  User’s  Manual,  (Evenden,  1990,
       Open-file report 90-284).
       Map Projections Used by  the  U.  S.  Geological
       Survey (Snyder, 1984, USGS Bulletin 1532).
       Map  Projections—A Working Manual (Synder, 1988,
       USGS Prof. Paper 1395).
       An Album of Map Projections (Snyder  &  Voxland,
       1989, USGS Prof. Paper 1453).


                              2000/03/21 Rel. 4.4                      PROJ(1)
Last modified 9 years ago Last modified on May 15, 2008 9:29:55 PM