Changes between Version 3 and Version 4 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
Feb 1, 2017 12:38:00 AM (11 months ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v3 v4  
    11= The Trac Environment
     2
    23[[TracGuideToc]]
    3 [[PageOutline]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
    45
    5 Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the environment.
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
     7
     8Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] databases. With PostgreSQL and MySQL you have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
    69
    710== Creating an Environment
    811
    9 A new Trac environment is created using [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]:
     12A new Trac environment is created using the [TracAdmin#initenv initenv] command:
    1013{{{#!sh
    1114$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    1215}}}
    1316
    14 `trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the database connection string, see below.
     17`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the [#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string].
    1518
    1619=== Useful Tips
     
    1821 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
    1922
    20  - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to
    21  the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
    22  the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository,
    23  although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     23 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
    2424 
    25  - `initenv`, when using an svn repository, does not imply that trac-admin will perform `svnadmin create` for the specified repository path. You need to perform the `svnadmin create` prior to `trac-admin initenv` if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new trac environment, otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment.
     25 - `initenv` does not create a version control repository for the specified path. If you wish to specify a default repository using optional the arguments to `initenv` you must create the repository first, otherwise you will see a message when initializing the environment: //Warning: couldn't index the default repository//.
    2626
    2727 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
    28  
    29  - Also, it seems that project names with spaces can be problematic for authentication, see [trac:#7163].
    3028
    31  - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment] before being able to use it.
     29 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment]. Alternatively you can avoid the need to upgrade the environment by specifying a configuration file at the time the environment is created, using the `--config` option. See TracAdmin#FullCommandReference for more information.
     30
     31{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     32**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
     33
     34This is a common beginners' mistake.
     35It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modeled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and //must not// be located at the same place.
     36}}}
    3237
    3338== Database Connection Strings
    3439
    35 Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] database backends. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     40You will need to specify a database connection string at the time the environment is created. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The SQLite database file is stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
    3641
    3742Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
    3843
    3944=== SQLite Connection String
     45
    4046The connection string for an SQLite database is:
    4147{{{
     
    4551
    4652=== PostgreSQL Connection String
    47 If you want to use PostgreSQL instead, you'll have to use a different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with the password `letmein` use:
     53
     54The connection string for PostgreSQL is a bit more complex. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database named `trac` on `localhost` for user `johndoe` and password `letmein`, use:
    4855{{{
    4956postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
     
    5966postgres://user:password@/database
    6067}}}
     68
    6169or a specific one:
    6270{{{
    6371postgres://user:password@/database?host=/path/to/socket/dir
    6472}}}
    65 
    66 Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
    6773
    6874See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
     
    7278$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    7379}}}
    74 When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
    7580
    76 Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
     81When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode. SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     82
     83Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
    7784{{{#!sh
    7885$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     
    8794=== MySQL Connection String
    8895
    89 The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on the same machine called `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`, the MySQL connection string is:
     96The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on `localhost` named `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
    9097{{{
    9198mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
     
    94101== Source Code Repository
    95102
    96 Since Trac 0.12, a single environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository, such as `type`, `url`, `description`.
     103A single environment can be connected to more than one repository. However, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' navigation item will not be displayed.
    97104
    98 In Trac 0.12 `trac-admin` no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed.
    99 You can also explicitly disable the `trac.versioncontrol.*` components, which are otherwise still loaded.
    100 {{{#!ini
    101 [components]
    102 trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled
    103 }}}
    104 
    105 For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository, but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for Trac supports this. For other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
    106 
    107 Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository:
    108 {{{#!ini
    109 [trac]
    110 repository_type = svn
    111 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
    112 }}}
    113 
    114 The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
    115 {{{#!ini
    116 [trac]
    117 repository_type = svn
    118 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
    119 }}}
     105There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. A single repository can be specified when the environment is created by passing the optional arguments `repository_type` and `repository_dir` to the `initenv` command.
    120106
    121107== Directory Structure
    122108
    123 An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     109An environment consists of the following files and directories:
    124110
    125111 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
    126112 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
    127  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     113 * `files`
     114  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
    128115 * `conf`
    129116  * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
    130117 * `db`
    131118  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
    132  * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/htdocs/site/...` URLs.
    133  * `log` - Default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
     119 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/chrome/site/...` URLs.
     120 * `log` - Default directory for log files, if `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
    134121 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
    135122 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
    136123  * `site.html` - Method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance.
    137124
    138 === Caveat: don't confuse a ''Trac environment directory'' with the ''source code repository directory'' #Caveat
    139 
    140 This is a common beginners' mistake.
    141 It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
    142 structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.
    143 
    144125----
    145126See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide